Poor sleep increases risk of Alzheimer's disease

Research: It may be possible to restore memory function in Alzheimer's, preclinical study finds

In people with Alzheimer's disease, tau tangles tend to emerge in parts of the brain important for memory - the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex - and then spread to other brain regions. This same bacteria causes periodontal disease which creates gum infection and potential tooth loss when left untreated. What's more, autopsies have shown that protein plaques can appear in people who had no Alzheimer's disease.

Traces of the bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, which causes chronic gum disease, have been found in the brains of people who had Alzheimer's disease.

Yan's team studied mice with genetic markers for Alzheimer's, as well as brain tissue from deceased patients.

The study authors say these results, plus additional testing in mice, provide "solid evidence" of a link between the two diseases and may offer a potential new way to treat Alzheimer's. COR388 showed positive trends across several cognitive tests in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, and the company plans to initiate a Phase 2 and 3 clinical trial of COR388 in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease in 2019.

Writes Science Advances, in recent years, scientists are finding more evidence to support the hypothesis on the infectious nature of Alzheimer's disease.

P. gingivalis can destroy gums and cause tooth loss.

Where did the story come from?

The study, which is coordinated by the pharmaceutical startup Cortexyme and co-founded by Dominy, developed a series of molecule therapies that target Pg gingipains. The study was funded by Cortexyme, which was founded by some of the researchers involved in the study.

The study, published in the journal Science, indicates that lack of sleep alone helps drive the disease, and suggested a good night's sleep may help preserve brain health.

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What kind of research was this? Since the study's publication, the neurologists are planning to expand their research to include more patients. "Human CSF tau also increased over 50% during SD".

What did the research involve?

"Some people think the stigma for Alzheimer's and Dementia is still there and that it's a typical part of aging which it is not", Ligeza said.

Dr Brendan Lucey, Assistant Professor of neurology, obtained cerebrospinal fluid - which bathes the brain and spinal cord - from eight people after a normal night of sleep and again after they were kept awake all night. They said the concentration of gingipains in brain tissue was "significantly higher" in brain samples from people with Alzheimer's disease.

In laboratory experiments, they found cell cultures infected with P. gingivalis showed signs of fractured or broken-up tau protein. Over six weeks, they established infections in the mouths of otherwise healthy mice and indeed discovered the presence of the bacterium in their brains.

An incredible discovery by medical researchers could change the treatment of Alzheimer's disease as we know it, now that a simple blood test could identify the condition over a decade before it sets in.

Dr David Reynolds, chief scientific officer at charity Alzheimer's Research UK, pointed out that Alzheimer's was likely to have multiple causes, one of which may be gum disease bacteria. Some studies suggest that the prevalence of dementia might be higher among Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. But it only shows an association, it still doesn't prove a causal link.

'But there isn't yet clear evidence that it can cause this damage in people or result in Alzheimer's. The team also gave the mice a drug that bound to the gingipain enzyme. We already know that amyloid and tau can accumulate in the brain for 10 to 20 years before Alzheimer's symptoms begin.

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